Friday, September 2, 2011

Toxicitatea deodorantelor -extras wikipedia

Aluminium neurotoxicity

Aluminium, present most often in antiperspirants, but not usually present in non-antiperspirant deodorants, has been established as a neurotoxin.[24][25][26][27] At high doses, aluminum itself adversely affects the blood-brain barrier, is capable of causing DNA damage, and has adverse epigenetic effects.[24][28] Research has shown that high doses of the aluminum salts used in antiperspirants have detrimental effects to a number of species such as non-human primates,[29] mice,[30] and dogs.[31]
Experiments with mice applying aqueous solution of aluminum chloride to the skin resulted in "a significant increase in urine, serum, and whole brain aluminum"[32] and transplacental passage.[30] A 2001 study showed that the use of aluminium chlorohydrate, the active ingredient in many antiperspirants, does not lead to a significant (vs. ingestion via diet) increase in aluminium levels in the body with one-time use.[33] The Food and Drug Administration "acknowledges that small amounts of aluminum can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and through the skin."[34]
An increased amount of aluminum is present in the brains of many Alzheimer's patients.[35][36] A 1990 study showed an association between exposure to aluminum and long term use of antiperspirants and Alzheimer's disease with a trend toward a higher risk with increasing frequency of use.[37] A 1998 study indicated the use of aluminium-containing antiperspirants has been linked with the systemic accumulation of aluminium which increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease.[38]
The Alzheimer's Society advises that "environmental factors have been put forward as possible contributory causes of Alzheimer's disease in some people. Among these is aluminium. There is circumstantial evidence linking this metal with Alzheimer's disease, but no causal relationship has yet been proved. As evidence for other causes continues to grow, a possible link with aluminium seems increasingly unlikely."[39]


Breast cancer

2004 and 2005 studies led by researcher Phil Darbre, hypothesizes that particular substances in deodorants, such as preservatives called parabens, or bolts such as aluminum chloride used in antiperspirants, get into the bloodstream or accumulate in breast tissue, where they enhance or emulate the effects of estrogen, which stimulates the growth of cancerous breast cells.[48][49] A 2007 study found that personal care products are a potential contributor to the body burden of aluminium and newer evidence has linked breast cancer with aluminium-based antiperspirants.[22] A 2008 study stated that no scientific evidence supports the hypothesis that deodorants and/or antiperspirants increase the incidence of breast cancer.[50] A study published in 2009 by the journal The Breast Cancer Research proposed a link between breast cancer and the application of cosmetic chemicals including phthalates and aluminum salts in the underarm region, because of their oestrogenic and/or genotoxic properties, which provides an evidence-based hypothesis capable of further research.[51]

Renal dysfunction

The FDA warns "that people with renal dysfunction may not be aware that the daily use of antiperspirant drug products containing aluminum may put them at a higher risk because of exposure to aluminum in the product."[34] The agency warns people with renal dysfunction to consult a doctor before using antiperspirants containing aluminum.[34]

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